Affidavits in Summary Judgment – Designated Orders: September 16 – 21, 2019

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Only one order this week, but it’s a meaty one. Judge Halpern disposed of three pending motions from Petitioner in Martinelli v. Commissioner, a deficiency case. Let’s jump right in.

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Docket  No. 4122-18, Martinelli v. C.I.R. (Order Here)

So begins the tale of the brothers Martinelli: Giorgio, the Petitioner in this Tax Court case, and Maurizio, the generous yet problem-causing sibling who—according to Giorgio—created an Italian bank account in Giorgio’s name in 2011. Giorgio argues that he never had knowledge of or control over the Italian bank account; he was a mere “nominee” on the account. He first learned of the account in September 2012.

The IRS, as one might expect, alleged that Giorgio didn’t report the income from the account on his federal income tax returns for 2011 through 2016. To boot, the IRS assessed a penalty under section 6038D(d) for failure to disclose information regarding a foreign financial assets where an individual holds foreign financial assets exceeding $50,000 in value. (NB: This penalty is distinct from the Foreign Bank Account Reporting, or FBAR, penalty found at 31 U.S.C. § 5321. Unlike the FBAR penalty, the IRS may collect the section 6038D(d) penalty using its ordinary collection mechanisms, including the federal tax lien).

Petitioner filed three motions: first, a motion for partial summary judgment to determine that the Tax Court has jurisdiction regarding the section 6038D(d) penalty; second, a motion to restrain assessment and collection of the penalty while the Tax Court case is pending; and third, a motion for partial summary judgment regarding the underlying income tax deficiency.

Jurisdictional Motion

The Court rightly held that it lacks jurisdiction as to the 6038D(d) penalty. As the Tax Court likes to repeat, it is a court of limited jurisdiction. Congress must provide the Tax Court with the authority to hear particular cases. While certain penalties fit into Congress’ grant of authority under the Tax Court’s general deficiency jurisdiction under section 6211(a) and section 6214, this penalty simply doesn’t.  

Judge Halpern reviews the Court’s jurisdiction under section 6211(a). It includes taxes imposed under subtitle A or B, or under chapters 41, 42, 43, or 44. But section 6038D is in Chapter 61 of subtitle F. So no luck there.

Likewise, the penalty isn’t an “additional amount” under section 6214. Tax Court precedent has confined this jurisdictional grant to penalties under subchapter A of chapter 68. See Whistleblower 22716-13W v. Commissioner, 146 TC 84, 93-95 (2016). Failing to find a jurisdictional hook, the Court denies summary judgment on this matter, holding that the Court does not have jurisdiction with respect to this penalty.

Is this the right result as a policy matter? I think not. The IRS likely assessed this penalty during the audit of Mr. Martinelli’s tax return, in addition to the deficiency it proposed. One result of the audit is subject to challenge in the U.S. Tax Court; the other isn’t. Yet a challenge to both may rely on the same set of facts. Why require a taxpayer to litigate twice?

Motion to Restrain Assessment & Collection

The Court’s disposition of the first motion makes the second easy. If the Court can’t determine the amount of the penalty, it certainly can’t tell the IRS not to collect the penalty. This motion is likewise denied.

The Deficiency

Giorgio alleges that he was a mere “nominee” of the account, and that in fact, his brother Maurizio controlled the account. Thus, Giorgio shouldn’t be subject to tax on the interest and dividend income from the account.

Judge Halpern takes issue with the nominee argument. He notes that a nominee analysis doesn’t really fit here; that analysis is usually used to determine whether a transferor of property remains its beneficial owner. Here, the parties disagree on whether Maurizio used his own assets to fund account and then listed Giorgio as the nominee owner. This analysis would allow the Court to determine whether Maurizio had an income tax liability, but would only allow a negative implication as to Giorgio.

Instead, the Court focuses on whether Giorgio exercised sufficient dominion and control over the account. The Court asks whether Giorgio had freedom to use funds at his will. While Petitioner did submit affidavits from himself and Maurizio, there was no other evidence to show that Petitioner didn’t enjoy the typical rights of an account owner (i.e., the right to access funds in the account). So, it appears there’s still a genuine dispute of material fact regarding Giorgio’s ability to access these funds.  

Judge Halpern did, however, allow for the possibility that Giorgio didn’t have any knowledge of the account until after 2011. After all, one can’t withdraw funds from an account that remains secret from the nominal owner. Giorgio says that he didn’t have knowledge until September 2012.

Here’s where we enter a problem for the typical analysis of a motion for summary judgment. Petitioner provided an affidavit that he had no knowledge of the account until September 2012. Respondent denied this, but didn’t provide any other evidence showing that Giorgio did, in fact, have this knowledge. Under Rule 121(d), Respondent can’t rest on mere denials in response to a motion for summary judgment; instead, a party “must set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine dispute for trial.”  

What’s Respondent to do? There may be no evidence demonstrably showing that Giorgio knew about the account. The only evidence is Giorgio and Maurizio’s affidavit.

Rule 121(e) provides a safety valve: if a “party’s only legally available method of contravening the facts set forth in the affidavits or declarations of the moving party is through cross-examination of such affiants or declarants . . . then such a showing may be deemed sufficient to establish that the facts set forth in such supporting affidavits or declarations are genuinely disputed.” In other words, Petitioner can’t simply provide an affidavit and rest on his laurels. Respondent must have an opportunity to cross-examine the affiant—in this case, Petitioner and his brother.

Thus, because Respondent showed under Rule 121(e) that they had no other way to refute the facts alleged in Petitioner’s affidavits, the knowledge issue is a genuinely disputed material fact for 2011. Whether petitioner controlled and could withdraw funds from the account is likewise a genuinely disputed material fact for the other tax years. As such, Judge Halpern denies Petitioner’s motion for summary judgment.

The case is now set for trial on February 10, 2020 in New York.  

About Patrick Thomas

Patrick W. Thomas is the founding director of Notre Dame Law School’s Tax Clinic, in which he trains and supervises law students representing low-income clients in disputes with the Internal Revenue Service. Prior to joining the law school faculty in 2016, he received an ABA Tax Section Public Service Fellowship to work as a staff attorney for the LITC at the Neighborhood Christian Legal Clinic in Indianapolis.

Comments

  1. Good write up. Some quick observations:

    The summary judgment discussion reminds me of the marvelous discussion in Dyer v. MacDougall, 201 F.2d 265 (2d Cir. 1952), here: https://casetext.com/case/dyer-v-macdougall?resultsNav=false&jxs=federal&tab=keyword

    Basically, two powerhouse judges (Learned Hand and Jerome Frank) weigh in on the issue of whether, on a motion for summary judgment, the party having the burden of persuasion in a slander case can get avoid summary judgment where the opponent and those who allegedly heard the slander deny the slander. It is conceivable that, on trial, the trier could judge the testimony and the demeanor evidence and believe that the opposite of the denials are true. But, as to the party bearing the burden of persuasion, on summary judgment there must be something more than the possibility that the jury will reject the denials and find the opposite.

    Tax Court Rule 121(e) seems consistent with Dyer v. MacDougall because the IRS did not seek summary judgment based on what, at trial, would be only demeanor testimony of a witness or witness denying the fact. Rather, it is the taxpayer with the burden of persuasion who asks that summary judgment be given although, upon the trial, the trier may either (i) not be persuaded by the testimonial denial (i.e., be in a state of equipoise) or (ii) even be persuaded the opposite of the denials.

    Good Order.

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